|Marans of America Club||
We all have much to learn as well as we have to teach.
Pipped Egg Did Not Hatch
If chick embryos develop to the pipping stage, or at first shell cracking at hatching, they are normally healthy enough to hatch unless some incubator adjustment prevents it from happening. The problem is usually caused by either 1) poor ventilation or 2) improper humidity.
The air exchange requirement within an incubator is greatest during the last day of incubation. The chick embryo's oxygen requirement continually increases during development and especially when breathing using the respiratory system just before hatching.
The vent openings are frequently restricted at this time in an attempt to boost incubator humidity. Instead of helping the chick hatch, the chick is suffocated from lack of ventilation. Never decrease ventilation openings at hatching in an attempt to increase humidity. Increase humidity by other methods.
If any vent adjustments are made, they should be opened more.
Another reason for mortality during hatching is improper humidity adjustment. The deaths can be produced from too much humidity during the entire incubation period or from too little humidity during the hatching period.
The desired egg weight loss during incubation caused by water evaporation is about 12 percent. If humidity during incubation is kept too high, adequate water evaporation from the egg is prevented.
The chick can drown in the water remaining in the shell at hatching. A dried coating around the chick's nostrils and beak indicates that drowning was likely. Attention to maintaining proper incubation humidity during incubation will reduce the potential for this problem at hatching time.
If the humidity is allowed to decrease after the chick pips the shell, the membranes within the shell can dry-out and stick to the chick. This prevents the chick from turning inside the shell and stops the hatching process.
The chick eventually dies. If the membranes around the shell opening appear dried and shrunken, the cause is probably low humidity during hatching. This condition can occur quickly (within 1 or 2 minutes) when the incubator is opened to remove or assist other chicks that are hatching.
When hatching begins and proper incubator conditions are attained, the incubator should never be opened until after all chicks are hatched and ready for placement in the brooder.
Mississippi State University
Protein Boost for Sick Chickens
“” This amount feeds one bird””
Feed the birds three times a day for three days a mixture of
This mixture is what you will need for the entire three feeds…. It is not 3 egg yolks and 3 teaspoons of honey etc…. divide the contents into three
½ to 1 x egg yolk….. give the whites to the other hens mixed into their seed or pellets (depends a lot on the size of the egg yolk)
1 teaspoon honey…. .given for energy
2 x tablespoons yogurt…. Given for calcium and also to make the bowel go back into normal production after this upset
Only use the plain yogurt never the one with fruit or extra sugar in it, not good for the bird
¼ teaspoon calcium powder (if you can’t get the yog3 to 4 tablespoons rolled oats…. To give substance to the feed, or use chicken crumbles or layer pellets but soften them with some boiling water first
Sprinkle of multi--vitamin powder (only if you are not already giving it to them in their drinking water, don’t overdose) just a few grains will usually be enough for this size mixture
2 to 4 table spoons of apple sauce or grated apple, it must be grated not chopped up for ease of digestion
Mix to make a crumble mixture not runny
If the bird is not eating you will have to force feed... roll into small pellets the same size as a layer pellet.... and force feed, and then massage the neck in a downward motion to get it down into the bired crop, make sure your keep the neck straight, its really hard getting something down a neck that is bent or curved, the bird may be too weak to eat or have lost the desire to eat…. Don’t hold back…. The longer it goes without this the worse it will get
If you must give it something to drink – only give drops onto the beak or use the crop tube to get fluids down the throat, don’t try and pour any fluid down a chickens throat, it will more than likely go into the air passage and into the lungs and end up drowning the bird
This will give the bird a large dose of Vitamin D, C and A
After 3 days cut back to once a day for 2 weeks, you should notice the difference in 3 or 4 days
Give other food also, chick crumbles, grower crumbles or layer pellets depending on the age of the bird etc
Also have fresh water at all times for the birds to drink in easy reach, remember it is not well so it may not go looking for the food and water, so put it just about under its nose so it can’t miss it.
URTHER BREEDING OPTIONS
Dr Charles R H Everett With Craig Russell
First Generation Hen Cock
½ hen ½ cock
Hen to son
Cock to daughter ¾ hen ¾ cock
Hen to grandson
Cock to granddaughter 7/8 hen 7/8 cock
Hen to grandson
Cock to granddaughter 15/16 hen 15/16 cock
Now in the 5th generation you breed the 15/16 hen to the 15/16 cock. Then, choosing the best hen(s) and cock(s) you begin again. C. A. Finsterbusch recommends the same breeding strategy in his famous book Cockfighting All Over the Word page 152—153. If they chose to continue line breeding these fowl were what they termed "seed stock." Seed stock was never pitted. Instead, they were crossed to a different strain to produce their "battle cocks." Battle cocks were never used in breeding pens if this system were employed. Or, at this point you choose the three to five best hens and begin the clan mating system.
Alva Campbell who created the "Campbell Blue Boones" during the early years of the twentieth century line bred his outstanding pullets to one cock, "Daniel Boone," for eleven straight years. D. H. Pierce claimed his "Wisconsin Red Shufflers" were line bred for 35 years with no loss of vigor or gameness.
How did these men accomplish this when so many modern textbooks on poultry genetics maintain this is impossible to do? I have discovered several key answers. First, "an inbreeder must breed only from his most vigorous… specimens." Second, they culled ruthlessly. Third, in any form of line breeding the youthfulness of the stock used cannot be overstated. Fourth, they often carried on the same mating (One cock to one hen) for four or five years. Thus, in twenty years it was possible to have only produced four or five distinct generations. When cocks happened upon a cock and hen that produced winners in the pit, then they mated these two year after year. Fifth, they kept accurate records of every mating and often practiced single matings. Sixth, they only attempted close inbreeding on free range giving the birds every advantage of producing constitutional soundness and vitality. These six keys allowed the cocks to be greatly successful at the art of breeding game fowl centuries before the advent of modern genetics.
Many cocks practiced variations of the rolling-matings and clan-matings systems. When practicing the rolling-matings they would often include side matings of line breeding. When using the clan system the large breeders often kept five to seven clans. (They called them "yards.") With the clan matings they most often used the matriarchal system as advocated by Dick Demansky. At times they would create "new" clans or yards of full sisters when a particular hen within the clan produced exceptional sons. Thus, this one hen became prepotent in the new yard through her daughters.
Like those of traditional farmers, for whom poultry was an important part of the subsistence, the methods of cocks have often been disparaged by modern experts. But for serious preservationists and small flock owners in general their tried and true methods are among the surest ways to turn simple reproduction into serious breeding and systematic flock improvement.
One of the truly wonderful things about raising chickens is that you the breeder can choose your own system of breeding to create your "own strain." Yes, you can even experiment! Regardless of how you personally feel about the sport of cockfighting, these men of a by gone era have much to teach us. So, why not learn from the original preservationist: coc
Poisonous Plants for Poultry
Actea pachypoda---white baneberry, cohosh---berries
Agrostemma githago---common corn cockle---seeds
Araujia sericifera---no other info available
Arisaema triphyllum---jack-in-the-pulpit---roots and stems
Asclepias mexicana, syriaca, tuberosa, verticillata---milkweed, silkweed, cottonweed---tops more toxic than roots
Cicula maculata---poison hemlock, spotted hemlock, cowbane, water hemlock---roots and young shoots
Colchicum autumnale---Autumn crocus---roots and stems
Conium maculata---spotted parsley, carrot fern, poison hemlock---all plant parts
Convallaria majalis---Lily-of-the-Valley---roots and stems
Daphne mezereum---february daphne---berries
Datura stramonium---jimson weed, thorn apple, stinkwort, Jamestown weed---leaves, roots and seeds
Daubentonia---no other info
Dicentra sp.---Bleeding heart, dutchman's breeches---roots and stems
Equisetum arvense, hymale---horsetail, scouring rush---leaves and stems
Erysimum crepidifolium---hedge mustard---all plant parts
Eupatorium rugosum---white snakeroot---all plant parts
Gloriosa superba---gloriosa lily---roots and stems
Glottidium vesicarium---harper seed---seeds
Hedera sp.---all english ivies---berries
Hyacynthus sp.---hyacinth---roots and stems
Iris sp. ---iris, flags---roots and stems
Laburnum anagyroides, vulgare---Golden chain tree---whole plant especially the seeds
Mustard---this is a huge family of plants---all species should be deemed toxic
Narcissus sp.---Narcissus, daffodil---roots and stems
Ornithogalum umbellatum---star-of-Bethlehem---roots and stems
Petroselinum sp.---parsley--- roots
Phytolacca americana---pokeberry, poke salad, pokeweed---roots stems and berries
Podophyllum peltatum---mayapple, mandrake---roots stems and berries
Ricinus communis---castor bean---beans (seeds)
Robinia pseudoacacia---black locust tree---fruit and bark
Solanum nigrum---black nightshade, poisonberry---berries especially when green
Symplocarpus foetidus---skunk cabbage---foliage
Taxus sp.---yews---foliage and berries
Xanthium pennsylvanium---cocklebur, sheepbur, clotbur---foliage especially when young
Good food for your poultry
Provides good shade, protein rich seeds can tolerate high levels of manure, can grow quite large, and so keep pruned back
Used to fill semi-shady zones under the tree canopy. It is not particular to soil types, self-seeds readily, full of vitamin rich fruit
A low sprawling, cold tolerant herb that likes moisture and shade, and a poultry favourite
Low growing sprawling wattle, fast growing, pod seeds are high in protein
Herb grows to 1.5m only known vegetable source of vitamin B12. Protein rich, helps cure digestive disorders, may die down over winter and re sprout in spring. Will grow rapidly with dressings of fresh poultry manure
Is a weed, grows to 1m. Can also be known as a herb, seeds are eaten as a good food source
It grows to 90cm and can be used like its relative pyrethrum, although its only half the strength. Can be made into an insect spray, will become frost hardy and grown easily, tolerating heat, poor soil, draft and weeds. The plant will re-seed readily
It has many applications. Regular addition (weekly or monthly) of finely chopped garlic to food or water is a good worm preventative. It stimulates digestive organs, relieves catarrh, and regularises liver and gall bladder. Treats intestinal infections, bacteria, benefits blood circulation, and heart action. It is also an excellent disinfectant
The root of the ginger is an appetiser and stimulant, helps relieve stomach problems as a hot ginger drink. Eases cold symptoms and promotes perspiration
A piece of ginger purchased from the green grocer can be left to shoot and then planted in a sunny, frost-free position
Also known as swamp pennywort, creeper for swampy places. Rejuvenating effects on the brain and body cells. By eating just two or three fresh leaves daily. A rich source of vitamins A, B, C, G, K magnesium, Asiatic and madecassic acids, plus the antibiotic asiaticoside.
It also contains an oily bitter tasting; volatile liquid called vellarin, and tannic acid
Short lived native bush. Birds relish the fruit. Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions, but prefers well drained, good screening plant and self seeds readily
Don’t plant too much, as it may tend to change the hormones of the birds, and strange things can happen, such as males sit on nests and stop fighting, females only have female chicks etc
Also called alfalfa, is a valuable source of green pick and protein, providing vitamins A, D, K, and E, plus riboflavin, pantothenic and nicotinic acid
It is tough perennial, lasting several years, dried and chaffed Lucerne can be fed to birds
A common shrub, summer seed good for poultry forage
This is a herb, poultry like it. Richly medicinal, strongly antiseptic, a vermifuge (de-wormer) and appetiser (especially the seeds). Nasturtiums are also good for the nerves and depression, and it repels insect pests
All parts of the tree have medicinal and insecticidal properties. It doesn’t kill insects, it repels them. Fast growing, even in poor soil and dry sites. It prefers a frost-free position. Grow Neem trees from seed
Stinging nettles are excellent for poultry, even if your not a fan of them. It is highly recommended that you grown some in a small area of your garden where your birds can peck at it
They are high in chlorophyll, iron, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, calcium, sulphur, silica, protein and vitamins A, C and D. and are also a preventative against worms and contagion
A combination of powdered seaweed, comfrey and nettles is a powerful laying stimulant that, can start even non-layers laying
When cut and withered, nettles lose the formic acid, which gives them their sting
Dry and powder them finely, and add them to food (this is good for humans too)
You can boil them for a few minutes to remove the sting and add them to cereal mash
Nettles boiled in Whey are fed to combat worms in poultry
Great activator in the compost heap, good companion plant for other herbs, mints and tomatoes
Quite an amazing plant
Can be made into a tonic drink. Just boil up as you would for barley water. The sprouts are full of vitamins and minerals and are much more digestible than raw whole oats
To sprout them, soak in warm water for a few hours. Wet them briefly on a daily basis. If they are kept on a piece of shade cloth or an onion bag it makes them easy to dip in water. When they sprout, spread them out and let them soak up some sunshine
It is a legume; that lives for around 9 years and grows to about 3m high, in a frost-free environment
A prolific seed bearer. Pods must be shaken or hit to make them drop, otherwise the parrots will eat the seeds. Direct seeding in spring is best. Choose a sunny well-drained location
It is an annual creeping herb. Eat the leaves raw or steamed. Seeds are good for the birds
It is a herb, that has both medicinal and insecticidal properties. It contains rutin, renowned for treating a host of diseases. Used on the skin to remove parasites. It is a good wormer and is highly antiseptic
Apply rue as a brew or a powder of dried leaves throughout feathers for lice. The herb is most potent when used fresh
Ever green shrub grows to 1 m high. Prefers alkaline soil and full sun
Some people are allergic to the rue oil in the leaves, so always wear gloves when picking it, and propagate by seed or division
This is a powerful insect repellent and is used externally for lice in the form of a powder or brew rubbed through feathers. It is also a worm expeller, antiseptic and tonic. Medicinally, it is used for stomach problems and fever, for coughs, mucous congestion and bronchial catarrh.
It is good to dry and strew on floors and is most powerful when leaves and flowers are picked just before opening. Fresh tops are used on weak brews
As an evergreen, likes full sun and dry conditions. Plants can be divided or woody stem cuttings taken in late winter or early spring
It is a weed, that grows to 3m high and smells strongly when brushed against. Their leaves are an irritant. Deters flies, lice and mosquitoes. Fowl will eat the leaves. It can also be hung or strewn around as an insect repellent
Flowers and leaves (flowers are strongest) can be steeped in a pan of boiling water with the lid on and let stand until cold. The brew can be mixed 1:1 with pyrethrum solution to spray around the fowl house
This annual plant can be established during any frost-free period. It grows easily from seed
Provides fowl with shade shelter and perches, year round green fodder, medicinally flowers in springtime (a great bird tonic). It produces large quantities of summer seed, high in protein and carbohydrates
Another strewing herb, is also a worming and medicinal herb. It has potassium rich leaves that are valuable in the compost heap as activators; it also repels mice, fleas and ants. It grows up to 120cm. Tends to stay green all winter, and spreads by means of rhizomes
Also known as Indian lilac, Persian lilac and Pride of India/China
White cedar closely related to the Neem tree, is used as a medicine or an insecticide. The leaves, flowers, root, bark or fruit are crushed and soaked in boiling water to cover. Leaves are insect and pest repellent, and are also used dried. The fruits are poisonous to pigs, sheep, goldfish and other species, but are devoured happily by rainforest pigeons and bats
Extremely bitter herb used internally for all worms and externally as an insecticide. An infusion of leaves is used as a wash for lice; leaves are placed in cupboards to eradicate moths in clothes.
Wormwood is also an antiseptic, a stimulant, a nervine and mental restorer, a stomachic, and appetiser and a liver tonic
However if too much is used internally it has the opposite effect and is poisonous